SHEKARU 59 DA SAMUN ‘YANCIN KAI: CI GABA KO CI BAYA?

0
59

SHEKARU 59 DA SAMUN ‘YANCIN KAI: CI GABA KO CI BAYA?

Daga Mohammed Bala Garba, Maiduguri.

Sir James Willson Robertson, shi ne Gwamna janar na qarshe a tarihin mulkin mallaka a Najeriya. Ya soma mulki ne a ranar 15 ga watan Yuni na shekarar 1955, sannan ya miqa mulki a hannun Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, wanda yake shi ne baqar fata na farko Xan Najeriya daya fara mulkin qasar, a ranar 16 ga watan Nuwamba na shekarar 1960.
Sir Robertson, bayan komawar sa gida, ya shiga damuwa da takaici bisa yadda ‘yan Afirka suka rushe duk wani asasin gina qasa da Turawa suka kafa musu a iya zaman su a qasashen Afirka, suka shiga yake-yake da juna tare da neman yancin kai a tsakanin su. Ya faxi hakan karara a littafin sa mai suna ‘Africa in Transition. From direct rule to Independence, wanda aka buga a shekarar 1974. Ya kuma faxi cewar ‘yan Afirka sun yi kuskuren neman ‘yanci tun da farko, domin abin da suka sani yanzu (na yake-yake da almundahna) basu san shi ba a baya, shi yasa tun a lokacin suka rinka matsa lambar korar Turawa tare da karbar yancin kai, wannan yasa muka yanke shawarar basu abin da suke so.
Kafin samun ‘yancin kai, an shafe shekara da shekaru ‘yan kishin qasa suna gwagwarmayar kwato wa qasar nan ‘yancin daga Turawan mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya, a qarshe haqarsu ta cimma ruwa, inda a ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1960, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa wanda ya zamo Firaministan Najeriya na farko ya karvi tutar ‘yancin kai daga hannun Gwamna Janar Sir James Willson Robertson, inda aka xaga tutar da Micheal Taiwo Akinkunmi ya zana mai launin Kore da Fari da Kore, yayin da aka sauke tutar Ingila.
Najeriya qasa ce mai al’adu da addinai da ma qabilu daban-daban da suka haura 200. Manya a cikinsu, su ne, Hausa da Ibo da kuma Yoruba, sannan kowannensu na da tsarin yadda yake tafiyar da mulkin jama’arsa.
Bayan da aka raba qasar zuwa yankuna uku, wato Hausa da Fulani a yankin Arewa, Ibo a yankin gabashi, Yarabawa kuma a yankin yamma, Arewa ta fi kowanne yankin yawa da kuma girma, abinda sauran yankunan suka yi ta kokawa a kai.
A shekarun 1940 zuwa 1950, jam’iyyun da aka kafa domin yakin kwatarwa Najeriya ‘yancin kai su ne, NPC (Northern People’s Congress) a Arewa, NCNC (Nigerian National Democratic Party) ta qabilar Ibo, da AG (Action Group) ta Yarabawa, sun yi ta gwagwarmaya musamman ma dai NCNC da AG waxanda ke neman a basu yancin cin gashin kai, abinda suka ga zai yi wuya ba tare da haxa kai da Arewa ba.
Hakan ne yasa jam’iyyun uku suka yi ta gwagwarmayar tare.
A ranar da za a baiwa Najeriya ‘yancin kai, wato ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1960, turawan mulkin mallaka na Ingila sun miqa tutar ‘yancin kai ga firaiminista Sir. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa wanda xan Arewa ne kuma musulmi, yayin da Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe wanda Kirista ne xan kabilar Ibo ke matsayin shugaban qasa.
Tun daga wannan lokacin sauran qabilun musamman Ibo basu ji daxin lamarin ba na cewa ‘yan Arewa ne ke mulkarsu, wanda wannan ne ya haifar da juyin mulki na farko da sojojin yawancinsu ‘yan qabilar Ibo suka yi a shekarar 1966, karkashin jagorancin Laftanal Chukwuma Nzeogwu Kaduna, inda aka kashe manyan shugabannin Arewa.
Waxannan qananan hafsoshin sojan, sun yi ikirarin cewa sun shirya juyin mulkin ne a saboda a cewarsu, shugabannin dake jagorancin qasar sun nuna zarmiya, inda suka ce ministocin gwamnati suna sace quxaxen baitul-mali domin amfaninsu.
Sai dai kuma a wani vangare, akwai masu ikirarin cewa wannan juyin mulki na qabilanci ne, saboda daga cikin sojoji 8 da suka kulla wannan juyin mulkin, 7 ‘yan qabilar Igbo ne, xaya ne kawai Bayarbe. A wani gefen kuwa, dukkan manyan shugabannin farar hular da aka kashe, harma da manyan hafsoshin soja, kusan duk ‘yan Arewacin Najeriya ne.
Waxanda aka kashe a juyin mulkin sun haxa da Sir. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Firimiyan Arewa da Sir. Ahmadu Bello Firimiyan Yamma da Samuel Akintola Ministan kuxi da Festus Okotie-Eboh (Shi kaxai ne xan yankin gabas a cikin gwamnatin tarayya da aka kashe) da Ahmed Ben Musa da Birgediya Zakariya Maimalari da Birgediya Samuel Ademulegun da Kanar Kur Mohammed da Kanar Shodeinde da Laftanal-kanar Abogo largema da Laftanal-kanar James Pam da leftana-kanar Arthur Unegbe. Shi ma Saje Daramola Oyegoke, ya taimakawa Nzeogwu wajen kai hari a kan gidan Sardauna, amma a cewar ‘yan sanda, daga baya Nzeogwu ya kashe shi.
A ranar 28 ga watan Yulin 1966, watanni shida bayan wannan juyin mulki, hafsoshin soja daga Arewacin Najeriya suka shirya nasu juyin mulkin, wanda ya kai ga kashe Janar Aguiyi-Ironsi tare da laftanal-kanar Adekunle Fajuyi.
Waxanda suka shirya wannan juyin mulki su ne, Laftanal-kanar Murtala Mohammed da laftanal-kanar Joseph Akahan da Manjo T.Y. Danjuma da dai sauran qananan hafsoshin sojan Arewacin Najeriya, cikinsu har da Laftanal Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida da Laftanal Muhammadu Buhari. Daga nan ne Najeriya tahau turbar rikice rikicen addini da na qabilanci har ma da na siyasa.
Rikicin Maitatsine shi ne rikicin addini na farko mafi muni da Najeriya ta fuskanta a jamhuriya ta biyu qarqashin mulkin marigayi Alhaji Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari. Tun daga wancan lokacin da aka yi rikicin Maitatsine, an yi ta samun rikice rikicen addini da na qabilanci daban-daban, kamar daga Arewacin zuwa Kudanci zuwa Gabashin qasar.
A farkon shekarar 1980 ne aka yi rikicin Maitatsine a jihar Kano, wanda daga bisani ya bazu zuwa Yola da Maiduguri da Bauchi da Gombe, inda aka yi asarar rayukan dubban dubatan mutane da suka haxa da Musulmai da Kirista. Bayan wannan, rikice-rikicen da suka fi muni sun haxa da rikicin Zangon Kataf na jihar Kaduna a shekarar 1992 tsakanin Hausawa da Katafawa, wanda daga bisani ya rikixe ya koma na addini.
A wannan rikicin shi ma an yi asarar rayuka da dukiyoyi masu ximbin yawa. Sai kuma rikicin Shagamu na jihar Ogun, wanda ya auku a watan Yulin shekarar 1999 tsakanin Yarabawa da Hausawa, biyo bayan kisan wata mata Bahaushiya da wata qungiya mai suna (Oro) ta yi, inda suka ce ta keta qa’idarsu. Kashe-kashen da aka yi wa Hausawa a Shagamu ya sa a Kano ma matasa sun xauki fansa kan Yarabawan dake zaune a can.
Sai kuma a watan Nuwamban shekarar 1999, inda wani rikicin qabilanci ya sake varkewa a unguwar Ajegunle ta jihar Legas tsakanin qungiyar OPC (Oodua People’s Congress) da ta matasan qabilar Ijaw.
Bayan kwantar da wannan rikicin a watan Disambar wannan shekarar, an sake samun wani varkewar rikicin qabilancin a kasuwar Mile 12, tsakanin kungiyar OPC da Hausawa, bisa dalilan shugabancin qungiyar masu sayar da doya a kasuwar, wato Shukura Yam Sellers Association, wanda kusan Hausawa ne ke riqe da shugabancinta, inda aka yi asarar rayuka sama da xari biyu tare da qone kasuwar kurmus.
Bullo da tsarin shari’ar Musulunci a wasu jahohin Arewacin qasar shi ne ya yi sanadiyar rikicin addini a jihar Kaduna cikin watan Fabrairun 2000, inda nan ma aka yi rikici tsakanin Musulmai da mabiya addinin Kirista, waxanda suka nuna rashin amincewarsu ga amfani da shari’ar Musulunci a jihar. Rikicin wanda ya bazu zuwa garuruwan Kachiya da Zariya da sauransu, shi ma ya haddasa asarar daruruwan rayuka da dukiyoyi masu ximbin yawa.
Bayan wannan rikicin na Kaduna, an samu makamancinsa a jahohin Sokoto da Barno musamman ma a garin Damboa na jihar Barno.
An fara samun rikici a Jos tun daga shekara ta 2001, wanda asalin sa na siyasa ne tsakanin ‘yan asalin yankin Pilato da kuma Hausa/Fulani dake zaune a can, kafin daga bisani ya rikixe ya koma na addini da qabilanci, kuma ya kasance xaya daga cikin manyan rikice-rikicen da aka samu a Najeriya. Rikincin Jos na faruwa ne tsakanin Hausa/Fulani Musulmai da kuma‘yan yankin na Pilato waxanda akasarinsu mabiya addinin Kirista ne. Bangarorin biyu sunyi taqaddama ne kan ko suwaye ‘yan asalin jihar da kuma waxanda za su yi shugabanci. Kan haka ne wasu ke ganin bayan ga qabilanci na addini, rikicin Jos na da alaqa da siyasa. An samu asarar rayuka da ma dukiyoyi masu ximbin yawa tun daga lokacin da aka fara zaman doya da manja a garin, wato daga shekara ta 2001 zuwa 2010. Rikice-rikicen da aka yi ta yi a Jos a shekarun baya kan bazu zuwa jahohin dake makwabtaka da ita kamar Gombe da Bauchi.
Ana cikin wannan yanayi muka tsinci kanmu a halin da muke ciki ayau, wato rikicin Boko Haram, wanda ya auku a watan Yulin shekara ta 2009, inda waxansu matasa qarqashin jagorancin Muhammad Yusuf dake adawa da ilimin Boko da aikin gwamnati suka qaddamar da yaqi kan jami’an tsaro da ofisoshinsu a birnin Maiduguri a jihar Barno.
Irin kashe-kashe da zub da jini da tashe-tashen hankulan da tun farko ake ganinsu a yankin Arewa maso gabas, daga baya ya bazu zuwa sassan Najeriya da wajenta. Yau kimanin shekaru goma kenan muna fama da tashe-tashen hankulan da zub da jini a dalilin qungiyar Boko Haram, sai ga wata fitinar ma ta sake varkewa tsakanin Makiyaya (masu kiwo) da Manoma, inda aka zub da jini tare da rasa rayuka masu yawa. Bayan lafawar wannan, sai ga jihohin Zamfara da Katsina da Taraba da Kaduna sun rikice, inda kullum cikin kashe-kashe da zub da jinin al’umma ake. Garkuwa da mutune kuwa ya zamo ruwan dare a waxannan jahohin, kai kace babu gwamnati a qasar.
Abubuwan dake faruwa tsakanin mabiya mazhaban Shi’a da gwamnatin Najeriya na sake barazana ga zaman lafiyar qasar, musamman ma ga Arewancin qasar.
Abin da mafi yawan mutane basu sani ba wasu kuma suka mance, shi ne, Mohammed Yusuf (shugaban qungiyar Boko Haram) wasu ‘yan tsirarin matasa ya mallaka, inda suka qaddamar da yaqi kan jami’an tsaro da ofisoshinsu a cikin birnin Maiduguri, daga nan kuma kashe-kashe da zub da jini da tashe-tashen hankula suka zamo ruwan dare a yankin Arewa. A yayin da wannan tashe-tashen hankali ke bazuwa zuwa wasu sassan na Najeriya har ma da makwabtanta. Yau kimanin shekaru goma ke nan amma gwamnatin Najeriya ta kasa murqushe Boko Haram, to yaya kuma qungiyar Shi’a wacce take da mabiya a dukkan qananan hukumomin qasar?
Duk mu ajiye wannan gefe guda, a tsawon wannan shekaru 59 da samun ‘yancin kai, shin ta vangaren ci gaban qasa da tattalin arziki, ci gaba muka samu ko ci baya?
Daga xan ‘yar uwanku, Mohammed Bala Garba, Maiduguri. 08098331260

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here