LITTAFIN MUWAƊƊA MALIK.

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LITTAFIN MUWAƊƊA MALIK.

Sunan mawallafin littafin, Malik ɗan Anas ɗan Malik ɗan Baban Amir ɗan Al-Haris ɗan Ghaiman ɗan Khuthan ɗan Amr ɗan Al-Haris Al-Asbahani mutumin Madina.
An haifi shi a birnin Madina, hijira tana da shekara 93. Ya rasu a shekara ta 179 (yana ɗan shekara 86. Amma wasu malaman tarihi sun ce shekarunsa 83 ko 84).
Sarkin Musulman zamaninsa, shi ne, Baban Jafar Abdallah ɗan Muhammad Al-Mansur. An haifi shi a shekara ta 95 bayan hijira. Ya rasu a shekara ta 158.
Littafin Muwaɗɗa, yana ɗauke da hadisai 1,700, waɗanda aka kasa su gida huɗu, kamar haka:
1- Hadisai 600 Marfu ne (waɗanda aka samu daga Sahabbai daga Annabi (S.A.W).
2- Hadisai 613 Mawƙuf ne (waɗanda aka samu daga Sahabbai, amma ba su danganta ga Annabi (S.A.W) ba).
3- Hadisai 285 Maƙtur ne (waɗanda aka samu daga Annabi (S.A.W) ko Sahabbansa).
4- Hadisai 222 Mursal ne (waɗanda aka samu daga tabi’ai; ba tare da sun faɗi daga waɗanda suka ji hadisan daga gare su ba).
Imam Malik ya rubuta Muwaɗɗa a shekara ta 148 bayan hijira.
Lokacin da Sarkin Musulmai Al-Mansur ya samu labarin ya rubuta Muwaɗɗa, sai ya aika a ƙira shi. Da ya zo, sai ya ce masa, “Na ji labarin ka rubuta wani littafi, ina son kaje ka taho mini da shi na gani.”
Imam Malik ya ce, “Haƙiƙa na rubuta littafi, amma gaskiya ba zan iya zuwa na taho da shi ba.”
“Mene ne dalili?” Sarkin Musulmai ya tambaye shi.
Imam Malik ya ce, “Ta ya ya zan zauna na haɗa hadisan kakanka, amma kai ba za ka iya zuwa ka ga hadisai ba, sai dai su, su taho su ganka!”
Al-Mansur ya ce, “Nayi kuskure, jeka ina zuwa.”
Imam Malik ya tashi ya tafi gida, Sarkin Musulmai ya shirya shi da bayi da ‘yan zagi suka ranƙaya zuwa gidan Imam Malik.
Da suka isa, sai duk suka tsaya a waje, Sarkin Musulmai ya shiga gidan shi kaɗai. Bayan ya shiga ya harɗe akan karaga, Imam Malik ya ɗauko masa Muwaɗɗa, ya nuna masa.
Sai Sarkin Musulmai ya ce, “A jiyar dani daga abin da yake ciki.”
Imam Malik ya ce, “Waɗanda aka bar su a waje, suma suna buƙatar wannan saƙon, a shigo dasu.”
Aka shigo da dukkan waɗanda suke waje. Bayi ne, talakawan ne, maskinai ne, fadawa ne, da dai sauransu. Amma Sarkin Musulmai yana gefe guda kan karaga a zaune. Sai ya ce, “To a jiyar da mu.”
Nan ma Imam Malik ya ƙara cewa, “Har yanzu da sauran ladduban iyar da saƙon kakanka, ka sauƙa akan wannan karagar, ka koma cikinsu ka zauna, ni kuma na hau kan karagar.”
Sarkin Musulmai ya sauƙa, ya koma cikin bayi ya zauna. Sannan Imam Malik ya jiyar da su hadisan dake cikin Muwaɗɗa.
Daga nan Sarkin Musulmai ya ce, zai mai da Muwaɗɗa a matsayin kundin tsarin mulkin (constitutin), daga ita, ba za a sake rubuta wani littafi ba. Amma Imam Malik yaƙi amincewa, saboda akwai hadisai da dama da bai samesu ba, ta yiwu wani yazo a bayansa, ya samesu. Don haka yaƙi amincewa a maida Muwaɗɗa a matsayin kundin tsarin mulki.

Yau kusan shekaru 1,263 da rasuwar Imam Malik, amma har gobe ambaton sunansa ake a bayan ƙasa.
Allah ya saka masa da mafificin alheri, ya bamu ikon koyi da shi.

Muhammad Bala Garba.
27 August, 2020.

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