Nana Asmaʼu Shehu Usman dan Fodiyo

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Nana Asma’u, Gimbiya ce, Marubuciyar Wakokin Addini, Malama kuma ‘ya a wajen shararren malamin addinin Musulunci, wanda ya yi Jihadi a kasar Hausa don dabbaka addinin Musulunci, Shehu Usman Fodio.

 

An haifi Nana Asma’u a shekara ta 1793, a garin Degel da yanzu take a Sokoto, shekaru goma sha daya (11) kafin fara Jihadin mahaifinta, Shehu Usman Fodio. Ba ita kadai aka Haifa ba, Nana Asma’u ‘yan biyu ce, abokin tagwaitakarta sunansa Hasan. Ita mahaifinta ya zabi ya sanya mata Asma’u

 

Nana Asma’u ta girma a hannun matan mahaifinta, Aisha da Hauwa (Mahaifiyar dan uwanta Muhammad Bello), bayan rasuwar mahaifiyarta a shekarar 1795. Wato tarihi ya nuna, shekarunta biyu kenan a duniya, mahaifiyarta ta rasu.

 

Nana Asma’u ta auri Usman Gidado a shekarar 1807. Sun tashi daga Degel sun koma Sokoto a 1809, bayan gina garin da dan’uwanta Muhammad Bello ya yi. A shekarar 1810 ne, Allah Ya albarkaci ta da haihuwar danta na farko, mai suna AbdulKadir. Bayan shi, ta haifi ‘ya’ya uku. Kamar mahaifinta, Nana Asma’u jajirtacciya ce, mai ilimi Addinin Musulunci, kuma mahaddaciyar Alkur’ani mai girma. Kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna, ita da ‘yan’uwanta Myram da Fatima, da kuma iyayenta Aisha da Hawwa (Matan Shehu Usman Fodio), sun bayar da gagarumar gudummuwa wajen yadawa da ciyar da addinin Musulunci gaba ta hanyar rubuta wakoki da wa’azi ga mata.

 

Haka nan, fitacciya marubuciya ce kwarai da gaske, a fannin da ya shafi hukunce-hukuncen addinin Musulunci da shari’a da sauransu. A fannin ilimin harshen Larabci, Nana Asma’u ba baya ba ce, don kuwa tana da shi sosai. Wannan ya sa, galibin rubuce-rubucenta na wakoki, ta yi su ne, cikin harshen na Larabci, sai Fulatanci da harshen Hausa da kuma harshen Tuareg (wani harshe ne da wasu kabilu da ke zaune a Niger da Mali da Algeria da Libya da Burkina Faso, ke amfani da shi).

 

Haka kuma Nana Asma’u tana da wasu rubutattun wake masu dimbin yawa. Wasu tayi sune akan jan hankali da nasiha ga Mata akan yadda zasu gudunar da rayuwarsu akan tsari na addinin musulunci da kuma guje wa yan bori , wasu waken alhinine na rashin wani nata. Wasu waken ta na magana ne akan Daular Mahaifinta Shehu Usmanu, ko Dan uwanta Khalifa Muhammadu Bello, Khalifa Atiku da kuma yake yaken da sukayi.

 

Ba a fagen Ilimi Nana Asma’u kadai ta tsaya ba; a fagen Jarunta ma, ba a bar ta a baya ba, domin kuwa ta halarci yake-yake da dama da mahaifinta ya yi, wannan ne ma ya sa, ta rubuta wata waka mai suna ‘Wakar Gewaye’ don bayyana irin abubuwan da ta gani da idanunta

 

Bayan rasuwar mahaifinta, Nana Asma’u ta zama mataimakiya ta musamman ga dan’uwanta sabon Kalifa, Muhammad Bello. Kuma a wannan gwamnati, tana daga cikin masu rubuta takardu da ake aikawa sauran Sarakunan garuruwan Musulmai.

 

A kokarinta da kishinta na ganin cewa, mata sun zama mutane, Nana Asma’u ta mayar da hankali matuka-gaya wajen ilimantar da mata. Wannan ya sa, a wajejen shekarar 1830, ta kirkiri wata kwarya-kwaryar gidauniyar Malaman Musulunci Mata, da aka kira da ‘Jajis’ suka rika shiga gida-gida suna karantar da ‘yan’uwansu mata addinin Musulunci; musamman Alkur’ani mai girma, littattafan Tauhidi da Fikhu, da sauransu.

 

Wannan aiki ya taimaki rayuwar mata kwarai wajen sanin addinin Musulunci. Sannu a hankali, sai ta fadada aikin, har zuwa wasu yankunan.

 

Litattafan ta

Wasu daga cikin manyan ayyukanta, sun hada da:

 

Rubuta Alkur’ani Mai Girma

Fassara Alkur’ani Mai Girma

 

Filatanci

 

1 Mantore Aranɗe

2 Sannore Gidado Waziri

3 Hulni-nɗe

4 Ɓegore

5 Gawakuke Ma’unɗe

 

Hausa

 

1, Ainihin Mutuwar Halima

2, Wa’azi

3, Kiran Ahmada

4, Murna Kan Nasarar Yaki

 

Larabci.

 

1, Mursalat Al-Sha’ar

2, Tanbih Al-ghafilin

3, Tabshir Al-Ikhwan

4, Qasida Min Asma’u

 

Nana Asma’u ta rasu a shekarar 1864 (amma wani tarihin ya nuna a shekarar 1863) dai-dai da 1280 A.H.

 

Via Bilal nasir umar sakkwato

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